The data in quantum computers are represented by the current state of quantum system which is the computer. Its development corresponds to the process obliczeniowemu. Appropriate planning of the evolution of quantum system, namely to create an algorithm allows a quantum theory, to achieve results in a much more efficient way than by using traditional computers. The basic elements of building a quantum computer are quantum logic gates. Quantum bit, called. qubit, according to the laws of the microworld will not have a fixed value of 1 or 0, as bit in a standard computer. In the course of the calculation will be located at some intermediate state. Governs the law of probability, like the position of an electron in an atom. Qubit is a quantum superposition of zero and one. A single quantum computer calculation result will be uncertain. , It is important to make a series of calculations and only their average value with high accuracy will determine the correct result - the more accurate the more, the computer calculations. Qubit carries the same time a lot more information than the zero-one bit. Therefore, it is able to perform multiple calculations simultaneously.

Physicists have long been candidates for qubits - the elementary particles, such as a photon or electron. The breakthrough came at the end of 1995. At the same time in several centers managed to construct a quantum gate, which further process qubits. Group of prof. Jeff H. Kimble'a of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena used a cesium atom in an optical trap caught between the mirrors (the role played qubits photons of different polarities). The group of Chris Monroe of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado has used beryllium atom illuminated by laser light. Yet another quantum gate, using the atom rydbergowski, created a team of Serge Haroche'a from the French Ecole Normale Superieure. To date, made a few simple computers, the calculations confirm the theory. We have already created the software for these machines. February 13, 2007 the company D-Wave Systems unveiled a system, called the world's first quantum computer register. But it is uncertain whether it can be called so: merely presented his action, despite construction